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In a study, using nitrate as the nutrient source, researchers reported that at a critical level or less than the critical level of nitrate concentration, both photobiont and mycobiont shows similar rate of growth in Peltigera praetextata (Flk.) Vain . The relationship between nutrition and moisture content in the maintenance of the symbiotic state. Lichens carry out both sexual and asexual reproduction. Soredium and isidium are the two types of vegetative reproductive structures of lichens. Isidium grows out of the thallus and contains both photobiont and mycobiont cells covered by the cortical layer of thallus . For example, in recent years, researchers have identified lichen as old as 600 million years through analysis of fossil and phylogenetic data . Lichens play a significant ecological role as the primary colonizers of barren earth and rock, and make the environment favorable for growth where other organisms can start establishing themselves . Photobiont cells carry out photosynthesis and provide nutrients for mycobiont.
Fruticose lichens are round in cross section with identical top and bottom . In addition, some species of lichens inhabiting forests are important in providing food and shelter for birds and animals . Further, lichens are being used as ecological indicators of pollution as they are very sensitive to changes in the environment. Example, Genus Lepraria Endolithic lichens grow inside the rock and help in rock weathering. Example, Genus Buellia Endophloeodic lichen grow on leaves and stems of plants. aff.sarcogynoids 'Scale-like' Crustose lichen which appears as partially separated from its substrate. Thallus of 'Effiguarte' lichens has radially arranged and long marginal lobes.
The fungal partner in the lichen association is the "mycobiont", and cyanobacterial (or algal) partner is the "photobiont".